Materi Kuliah Introduction to Psychology

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 MATA KULIAH
PENGANTAR PSIKOLOGI
INTRODUCTION
TO PSYCHOLOGY
By Yanti B. Sugarda
MATA KULIAH
PENGANTAR PSIKOLOGI
INTRODUCTION
TO PSYCHOLOGY
By Yanti B. Sugarda

Definition :

Psychology is the science of
behavior and mental processes

Psikologi adalah ilmu tentang
perilaku dan proses mental.

Psychology is based on scientific methods

Memory Awareness
Thinking Logic
Beliefs Ratio
Learning Understanding

A. Cognitive Aspects
Perception Attention

Related to thought activities

Motivation Learning
Intelligence Senses
Language

Emotions

Attitude B. Affective Aspects

Likes/dislikes

Feelings

Biological Behavior

C. Conative Aspects
Motoric Behavior

(Behavioral Aspects)

Social Behavior/Communication

Measurement of Mental Processes and Behavior

Psychologists use techniques based on scientific methods
by collecting data through :


Careful observation

Formulating a hypothesis about significance of data

Testing the hypothesis empirically
Contoh : mengamati sekelompok anak, sedang berantam, hipotesis
mengenai penyebab berantam, menguji kebenaran hipotesis.

Influences
Stimulus
Reactions/
Responses
Influences
Stimulus
Reactions/
Responses
(Psychological process)

Theory of Need and Motivation

Maslow Theory

An individual is motivated by 5 basic and hierarchical needs :

1. Physical/Biological Needs
2. Safety Needs
3. Social Needs
4. Esteem Needs
5. Self-Actualization Needs

Areas of Psychology
1. Development Psychology
Studies mental and physical growth in humans from the
prenatal period through childhood, adolescence, adult
and old age + gender difference.
2. Physiological Psychology
Studies the extent to which behavior is caused by
physical conditions in the body, nervous system, and
biochemistry.
3. Personality Psychology
Studies differences in traits among people, such as
anxiety, sociability, self esteem, and aggressiveness.
Areas of Psychology
1. Development Psychology
Studies mental and physical growth in humans from the
prenatal period through childhood, adolescence, adult
and old age + gender difference.
2. Physiological Psychology
Studies the extent to which behavior is caused by
physical conditions in the body, nervous system, and
biochemistry.
3. Personality Psychology
Studies differences in traits among people, such as
anxiety, sociability, self esteem, and aggressiveness.

4.
Experimental Psychology
Studies basic processes such as learning, memory,
sensation, perception, cognition, motivation, emotion.
5.
Clinical and Counseling Psychology
Diagnosis, causes, and treatment of abnormal behavior.

Counseling : “normal” problems of adjustment.

6.
Social Psychology
Studies influence of people on one another.

7.
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Address the problem of personnel, training, working
conditions, effect of automation.

PSYCHOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION –(found in all areas)
Communication deals with
1. The person as : -an individual
-a group
2. The stimulation or message
3. The medium
4. The effect or response
5. The person as : -communicator
-receiver
All are behavior related
Thus, psychology related
Psychological
influences
Psychological
influences
Psychological
influences
Psychological
influences
Medium
Communicator Message Receiver
PSYCHOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION –(found in all areas)
Communication deals with
1. The person as : -an individual
-a group
2. The stimulation or message
3. The medium
4. The effect or response
5. The person as : -communicator
-receiver
All are behavior related
Thus, psychology related
Psychological
influences
Psychological
influences
Psychological
influences
Psychological
influences
Medium
Communicator Message Receiver

Approaches in Studying Behavior
Naturalistic –Observation
Study animals and humans behavior in natural setting
instead of laboratory.
Experimental method
Begins with idea or hypothesis about relationship
between variables by manipulating dependent,
independent and control variables.
Correlational methods
Without manipulating or change variables.
Approaches in Studying Behavior
Naturalistic –Observation
Study animals and humans behavior in natural setting
instead of laboratory.
Experimental method
Begins with idea or hypothesis about relationship
between variables by manipulating dependent,
independent and control variables.
Correlational methods
Without manipulating or change variables.

PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES
Research Methods Used
a). The Naturalistic Observation Method
Study on human behavior in its natural context
.real-life situation
Disadvantage : observer bias
Overcoming disadvantage :
-recording systematically
-more than one researcher
b). The Experimental Method
Arranged condition to experiment on reaction toward
stimulus
The steps
1. Observe .hypothesis
2. Pick subjects : -experimental group : subject to change
-control group : not subject to change
3. Independent variable
Variable that is manipulated to test effect on dependent variable
4. Dependent variable
Variable that is changed by manipulation of independent variable
PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES
Research Methods Used
a). The Naturalistic Observation Method
Study on human behavior in its natural context
.real-life situation
Disadvantage : observer bias
Overcoming disadvantage :
-recording systematically
-more than one researcher
b). The Experimental Method
Arranged condition to experiment on reaction toward
stimulus
The steps
1. Observe .hypothesis
2. Pick subjects : -experimental group : subject to change
-control group : not subject to change
3. Independent variable
Variable that is manipulated to test effect on dependent variable
4. Dependent variable
Variable that is changed by manipulation of independent variable

c). The Correlation Method

To correlate between 2 or more variables

Example :

Capacity

Between 100 girls and 100 boys:
Interest

interest to become an advertising
person

Assignment

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