Materi Kuliah Perceptions

materi-kuliah-perceptionsSospol.dikampus.com – Materi Kuliah Perceptions diajarkan di Departemen Sosiologi Fisip Universitas Airlangga.

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Transcript Materi Kuliah

 CHAPTER 2
PERCEPTION
CHAPTER 2
PERCEPTION
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PERCEPTUAL PROCESS

Sensory Stimuli Sensory Receptors

sory

Sights..Eyes
Sounds.Ears
Smells.Nose
Taste.Mouth
Textures .Skin
Exposure Attention Interpretation
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Sensory Marketing


Hedonic Consumption :The multisensory,
fantasy, and emotional aspects of consumers’

interactions with products.


Sensory Marketing : Emphasizes impact of
sensations on product experiences.
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THE FIVE SENSES THE FIVE SENSES

VISION

HEARING

TASTE

SMELL

TOUCH
ADDITIONAL SENSES

Sense organs in the muscles and joints tell about position of limbs and
state of tension in the muscles.

Vestibular (spatial) sense informs us about movement and stationery
positions •
the key sense to maintain balance.
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VISION
1. Hue (Color)
VISION
1. Hue (Color)
Stimulus –
sensation in Vision.


Wavelength of light
The color wheel. Any two colors
that are opposite to each other
are complementaries; this means
that combining them produces
gray or white. Thus, when red is
mixed with its opposite we see a
grayish-white color. The number
on the spokes of the wheel are
wavelengths measured in
nanometers. Spectral colors are
shown in their natural order, but
not at uniform intervals by
wavelengths because of space
limitations. The nonspectral reds
and purples are also shown

Mixing blue, green, red •
possible to make every color
in the spectrum

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After image of visual perception

Visual impression that persists after removal of the stimulus that
originally caused it.

The phenomenon of
after-images can be
demonstrated with this
reverse American flag.
Rest your eyes for a few
minutes and then stare
intently at the lower
right-hand star in transfer
your gaze to a white
surface, such as a blank
sheet of paper. You should
see an American flag in its

correct colors –
blue
instead of yellow, red
instead of green, and

white instead of black.

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COLOR BLINDNESS

Monochromat

Totally color blind. The world is seen in shades of grey, like in black
and white TV.

Dichromat

Red-green blind. They cannot see the colors red and green.

Trichromat

Normal color vision

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2. Brightness
Intensity of light stimulus is major determinant of
brightness sensation.

Black

white

3. Form
Patterns of energy projected on the eye.

Some parts are darker some are lighter makes the shape in the
brain.

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PERCEPTION PERCEPTION
Perception is to translate raw sensory information into meaningful
patterns.

When sensory information is incomplete, we tend to create a complete
perception by supplying the missing details.

When sensory
information is
incomplete, we tend to
create a complete
perception by supplying
the missing details. In
this figure, we fill in the
lines that let us perceive
a white triangle in the
center of the pattern

Knowing beforehand
that the black blotches
in this figure represent a
person riding a horse
changes our perception
of it.

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Perceptual Organization

Gestalt Psychology


To study perception in terms of total/whole, form or pattern perception.

The brain creates a coherent perceptual experience that is more than simply
the sum of the available sensory information.
Gestalt Psychology studies


Figure-Ground

Perceptual constancies
1.
Figure -Ground
Figure : object perceived to stand apart from the background.

Ground : Background against which the figures appear.

One important part of the perceptual process is to distinguish
figures from the ground.

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2. Perceptual Constancy
Tendency to perceive objects as stable and unchanging despite changes in
sensory stimulation.

Once we have formed a stable perception of an object, we can recognize it
from almost any position, at almost any distance, under almost any
illumination.

Example :

A white house is perceived as a white house by day or by night. From any
angle, we perceive it as the same house.


Size constancy

Shape constancy

Brightness constancy

Color constancy
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Gestalt principles of perceptual organization.

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Experience leads you to use certain perceptual cues to
recognize facial expressions, and the upside-down picture
looks normal. Those same cues cause the rightside-up
picture to look grossly distorted.

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Examples of shape constancy. Even through the image
of the door on the retina changes greatly as the door
opens, we still perceive the door as being rectangular.

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OBSERVER CHARACTERISTICS OBSERVER CHARACTERISTICS
Perceptual experiences depend on past experience and learning, and other
variables :

1.
Motivation :
Example :
Ambiguous pictures


People who are hungry tend to see food

People who are in love tend to see romance

Positive thinking

Negative thinking
2. Expectation :
Preconceptions about what we are supposed to perceive can also

influence perception.
PARIS

IN THE

THE SPRING

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3. Cognitive style
General methods of processing sense stimulation.

Field dependent approach :
Perceives as whole
Car : body, model, color.

Field independent approach

Perceives elements of the whole.
Car : front shape, bumper shape,tyres

4. Cultural Background
Style of language
Style of behavior

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ESP –EXTRA SENSORY PERCEPTION ESP –EXTRA SENSORY PERCEPTION
Clairvoyance

Awareness of unknown objects or events.

Telepathy

Knowledge of someone else’s
thoughts or feelings.

Precognition

Foreknowledge of future events.

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Assignment

1. Give an example of an ad which plays on the
visual perception.
2. Given an example of an ad which plays on
the audio perception.
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